Black Holes is still quite a mystery for us, and there is a lot we do not know about these behemoths. These light-gobbling objects would have been even more mysterious for us if not for Stephen Hawking who gave a more concrete mathematical reasoning to the entire concept of black holes after Albert Einstein predicted their existence in 1915 through his theory of general relativity.
The story behind Black Holes
Stephen Hawking who died on March 14 this year at the age of 76 gave the world a reason to believe that Einstein’s prediction of the existence of black holes might actually be true.
Tom Banks, a professor of astronomy and physics at Rutgers University-New Brunswick, New Jersey commented that Hawking backed all his claims about Einstein’s equations of gravity with rigorous mathematical theorems.
According to his findings, when Einstein’s equations were broken down into singularities, it was found that a singularity also existed in a region that is present inside a black hole.
When Hawking investigated the nature of black holes, it proved to be more revolutionary than anyone had thought it would be. Some of his initial work said that there was no way that a black hole could get any smaller. His work specifically suggested that the point beyond the spherical event horizon could not decrease.
The discovery of the first black hole was made in 1971. Today, it is believed that more than 100 million black holes are scattered across the universe. Many astronomers even go to the extent of believing that many galaxies including the milky way have a black hole at its center.
Hawking with the association of Roger Penrose, a fellow British physicist, built and worked on the theories of Einstein in order to describe all the physical characteristics of these celestial bodies that we refer to as black holes.
Their theories confirmed that a black hole is formed on the collapse of a star. He also confirmed the famous Big Bang Theory with the help of Penrose that showed that the universe violently emerged 13.8 billion years ago from a single compressed point that was the size of an atom.
Theory of Black Holes
If we could summarize in a few words what a black hole is, it is a bounded region of the universe produced by the collapse (“death”) of a star of great mass, and as the main property, has a density so high that the gravitational force does not even allow the light to escape.
In this process, the gravitational force that contracts the matter ends up winning the nuclear forces that tend to expand the star, and it ends up contracting, gaining in density, each time it has more mass in less space, generating a greater gravitational force.
When there is nothing that can stop the process, they begin to merge the components of the atoms, first protons, and electrons to give neutrons and then merge these to give rise to the uniqueness of infinite density which we call a black hole. In this process, the star and its light become weaker and darker until it disappears like a Cheshire cat, leaving only its gravitational force.
However, the collapse of a star not always ends up in a black hole. In the fight between the nuclear forces and the gravitational force, the collapse can be stopped, giving rise to a white dwarf star or a neutron star.
In that process, the explosion of the star can take place, expelling the external material and giving rise to a nova or a supernova. This stellar explosion can manifest itself in a very intense way so that it can be seen with the naked eye as a point of intense light in the sky where before there was a star with lower light intensity.
Is the Universe A Gruyere Cheese, The Original Swiss Cheese Full of Holes?
The black holes are solutions to mathematical equations without physical sense and mathematical illusions without correspondence with reality. Today, and leaving aside the other types of holes, black holes can only be inferred by what happens around them, given the extraordinary gravitational force exerted on nearby bodies, stellar gas, stars and space that surrounds them.
Today, we know enough things about black holes, how they are born, how they grow, the size they can have and how we can detect them. But there is still discussion in the scientific community about its structure and especially, about an area in the black hole called the event horizon. The Universe also seems to be full of horizons – apparent, isolated and dynamic.
The event horizon is a closed surface that separates the black hole region, the singularity, from the rest of the universe and is the boundary surface of space from which no particle can escape, including photons. Not even light with its great speed, almost 300,000 km per second can escape the gravitational force of a black hole.
Therefore, a black hole is defined by two characteristics that we have already seen. It has an event horizon and it has a singularity, provided that a series of conditions are met in the equations that define these parameters and the theory of general relativity is true.
In 1974, Stephen Hawking introduced quantum parameters to explain the singularity, where the laws of physics cannot say much about the system. This led him to say that black holes emit radiation, the famous Hawking radiation. But if they emit radiation, this can be detected, and if the black hole evaporates as described, then the black holes would not exist if they emit something
Hawking also stated in an article in 2014 that one cannot speak of event horizons, but of apparent horizons, of chaotic but recoverable radiation and a tremendous mess has been formed. The subject seems complex, and the physicists are wondering whether or not this information can be recovered.
Whatever the truth about black holes, Hawking, during his lifetime, remained convinced when physicists attempt to understand the inner workings of the universe, they can even learn valuable lessons about themselves. Black holes, according to him, can offer their own unique form of inspiration.